Type 2 Diabetes – Is Smoking Linked to Kidney Disease in Diabetes?


In February of 2018, the journal International Urology and Nephrology reported on a review of the medical literature on cigarette smoking and kidney disease in people diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. Researchers at Zhengzhou University in China put together nineteen studies and analyzed them as if they were one large study. They found albuminuria, or albumin, a protein in the urine, was linked with cigarette smoking. Albuminuria is one sign of kidney disease.

A total of 105,031 participants with Type 2 diabetes took part in the studies and albumin was seen in 23,366. Smokers were at higher risk than never-smokers for albuminuria…

  • 43 percent higher risk for ever-smokers,
  • 261 percent higher risk for present smokers,
  • 86 percent higher risk for former smokers.

The investigators suggest more research to clarify the link between smoking and albuminuria in people diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. Help is available for smokers who want to quit. Call 1-800-QUIT-NOW (1-800-784-8669) in the United States, or see the internet for the program closest to you.

Other factors that raise the risk of kidney disease include…

  • high blood sugar,
  • high blood pressure,
  • a family history of kidney disease,
  • age over 65, and
  • race – American Indian, African descent, Asian, or Hispanic.

The kidneys filter the blood, expelling excess water, sugar, and waste products. They save protein, allowing it to remain in the blood. When the kidneys are diseased they cannot hold onto albumin and it leaks into the urine. Another reason for having albumin in the urine is not taking in enough water, so the test is repeated twice over a period of three months. Other tests can clinch the diagnosis…

  • an Ultrasound or CT scan showing the kidneys can be performed with substantial abnormalities.
  • a kidney biopsy, in which a small piece of the kidney is removed and examined under a microscope, shows the kidney cells.
  • glomerular filtration rate, calculated from the amount of a molecule called creatinine in the blood, along with age, gender and race, tells how fast the kidneys can filter blood.

If kidney disease is detected in anyone with Type 2 diabetes…

  • then it is essential to bring blood sugar levels under control.
  • if high blood pressure is present it can be treated medically.
  • a special low protein diet can be prescribed to lower the workload of the kidneys.
  • in kidney failure, dialysis is performed with an artificial kidney.
  • kidneys can be transferred from cadavers or living individuals. After surgery patients must take medications to keep their immune system from rejecting the transplants.



Source by Beverleigh H Piepers

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